Sunday, August 12, 2012

BASIC ELECTRICITY


ATOMS AND MOLECULES:


ATOMS

As we know, everything in the world, whether solid, liquid, or gas, is made up of atoms. Each atom contains some number of electrons, protons, neutrons, and other sub-atomic stuff. The nucleus (central region) of each atom contains the protons (positive charge) and neutrons (no charge). Electrons (negative charge) live in a cloud around the outside. Since electrons and protons are charged particles, each atom prefers to have the same number of electrons as protons.

                                                              atom

MOLECULES

Atoms of one or more types are organized into molecules. There are only a hundred or so types of atoms, but there are an almost infinite number of different molecules. Molecules are the building blocks from which all real objects are made.


                                          molecules      

Molecules are not always so simple. Some organic molecules (like those in our bodies) can comprise hundreds of atoms.


VOLTAGE:

Every atom has its own complement of electrons. In a conductor, some of those electrons can jump from atom to atom. But electrons don't move from atom to atom without a reason. When electrons are flowing there is always an electrical force pushing them along. We called this force as "Voltage".

Current In very simple terms, current is the flow rate of the electrons in the circuit. 


Are Voltage and Current Related?

Voltage and current are not the same thing, although they are closely related. In simple terms, Voltage causes Current. Given a Voltage and a path for the electrons, current will flow. Given the path, but no Voltage, or Voltage without the path, there will be no current.


flashlight 


This picture illustrates a single cell pocket flashlight. The 1.5 Volt cell is pushing the electrons through the bulb and the wire. Without this push, the electrons would be happy to remain stationary. In this case, chemical action within the battery causes the push. When the battery gets old, its chemical reaction slows down and its internal push gets weaker and weaker.





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